¢¹ Girth: 2,820 ja
¢¹ Hight: 18 ja
¢¹ Bastion: 4~12
(to keep a fortress outside the fortress)
¢¹ Cannon building : 2
¢¹ Pond : 5
¢¹ Well : 9
¢¹ A wall heaped up on the fortress: 320 ja
Jeolla Byeongyeong Fortress was built by the military
commander, Ma Cheon-mok when Byeongyeong was established.
Considering the remains of today, Byeongyeong Fortress
may have a rectangle structure from south to north.
Its girth was 2,820 cheok and height was 18 cheok, suggesting
a scale of a small town fortress.
There were four gates on all sides. In particular, a
south gate, called Jinnamru, had the middle stratum
with three frontal rooms. Attached defense facilities
included 300~400 Yeocheop, which was built to avoid
enemy's arrows at two-meter intervals, and 4~12 bastions,
which were built to protect gates and strengthen the
fortress by period.
Also, Chi was prepared to observe the enemy approaching
in some walls and quickly drive back an attack in front
of the flank effectively. Although Chi was not found
in records, the remains of today bear the mark of eight
Water supply facilities include 4~9 wells and 2~5 ponds.
¢¹Gaeksa(for central government officials to be entertained
: Built in 1417(There were Dongheon and Seoheon
according to the record).
¢¹Unjuheon(military commander's office): Built in
¢¹Yeonhuidang(to relax such as reading or drinking):
Built in 1420.
¢¹Yongsudang(located in the west wall of Yeonhuidag):
Built in 1732.
¢¹Jinnamru(originally called Choru): Built in 1634.
¢¹Nammun(a two-storied building): Built in 1417.
¢¹Gongmuru(a gate of Gaeksa): Built in 1702.
¢¹Jesungru(a gate of Unjuheon): Built in 1745.
¢¹Dokjegak(an armory, located in the west)
¢¹Jangdae(for a commander to command, located in
the south 2-ri)
¢¹Joryanggo, Jojeokchang(a grain storehouse)
¢¹Gwancheonggo(a governmental goods storehouse)
(goods and grain storehouse for relief and given
only during a disaster)
¢¹Magazine, armory, military house
¢¹Namdangchang, Dongchang(a military supplies storehouse)
There were all kinds of government offices and buildings
inside the Byeongyeong Fortress. The most important
Gaeksa in symbol was divided into Dongheon and Seoheon.
Seoheon was called Cheongsimgak or Mangmiru.
To enter Gaeksa, one passed through Hongsalmun(gate)
and Naeoesalmun(gate). One of them was Gongmuru. There
was Unjuheon in the back of Gaeksa, which is guessed
as military commander's office.
Oesammun of Unjuheon was called Jeseungru. Jeokmakheon,
where Uhu(an aid of military commander) attended his
duties, was built with Unjuheon.
There was Yeonhuidang, a place for soldiers to relax,
west of Unjuheon. Many-storied Ungsudang was built on
its west top of the fortress and Dokjegak was built
south of the fortress. An armory was built east of the
fortress for common officials to keep arms and Gangyeomdang
was built inside the armory.
Apart from records of literature, although many buildings
including existing Gwandeokjeong may be arranged, it
is difficult to confirm at present.
Byeongma Jeoldosa, who was the supreme commander
of Jeolla Byeongyeong,and Byeongma Uhu, who was
an aide of Jeoldosa, held office for two years.
Although the appointment of Jeolla Jeoldosa is definitely
unknown, it can be partially understood through
<Joseon Wangjo Sillok>.
While Ma Cheon-mok playing a leading part in building
Byeongyeong Fortress was in King Taejong's favor,
many military commanders were impeached for personal
corruption. Jeolla Byeongyeong had 9 military officials,
excluding Jeoldosa and Uhu, 1 painter, called Hwasa,
and 1 Simyak, who checked out medicinal stuff offered
to a king.
According to <Sejong Sillok Jiriji>,
there were about 700 soldiers in Byeongyeong, but
the number was sharply reduced before and after
Imjinwaeran(Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592).
According to <Byeongyeong Ilji>, there were
10,000 Nappogun, who gave cloth instead of serving
in the army, and 500 soldiers. It demonstrated that
Nappogun had a majority of common people rather
than real trained soldiers, whose purpose is to
secure their finance stability.
The finance of Byeongyeong was divided into two
parts: one part was allotted to the central government
and the other part was for operating expenses of
its office. Regular taxes paid to five governmental
offices including Bibyeonsa, were presented to the
king during national events, and its own expenses
were alloted by dry-field grain or goods offered
from each town in Jeolla-do.
Among others, Naju, Yeongam, and Gangjin bore the
great expenses. In particular, Gangjin, the base
of Byeongyeong, fell under the direct jurisdiction
of Byeongyeong. Gangjin residents, accounting for
20% of the total population of Gangjin-hyeon, bore
all kinds of taxation and were also mobilized for
public labor such as repairs of Byeongyeong. Military
supplies of Byeongyeong were provided through the
operation of warehouse.
Byeolbimi of Suin Sanseong was also distributed
to each town and it interest was applied to finance.