Untitled Document
HOME > Experience Pavilion > Experience of the Hamel Village > History of Byeongyeong...

¢¹ Girth: 2,820 ja
¢¹ Hight: 18 ja
¢¹ Bastion: 4~12
   (to keep a fortress outside the fortress)
¢¹ Cannon building : 2
¢¹ Pond : 5
¢¹ Well : 9
¢¹ A wall heaped up on the fortress: 320 ja

Jeolla Byeongyeong Fortress was built by the military commander, Ma Cheon-mok when Byeongyeong was established.

Considering the remains of today, Byeongyeong Fortress may have a rectangle structure from south to north. Its girth was 2,820 cheok and height was 18 cheok, suggesting a scale of a small town fortress.

There were four gates on all sides. In particular, a south gate, called Jinnamru, had the middle stratum with three frontal rooms. Attached defense facilities included 300~400 Yeocheop, which was built to avoid enemy's arrows at two-meter intervals, and 4~12 bastions, which were built to protect gates and strengthen the fortress by period.

Also, Chi was prepared to observe the enemy approaching in some walls and quickly drive back an attack in front of the flank effectively. Although Chi was not found in records, the remains of today bear the mark of eight points.
Water supply facilities include 4~9 wells and 2~5 ponds.

¡ÜInternal facilities

¢¹Gaeksa(for central government officials to be entertained or sleep)
: Built in 1417(There were Dongheon and Seoheon according to the record).
¢¹Unjuheon(military commander's office): Built in 1659.
¢¹Yeonhuidang(to relax such as reading or drinking): Built in 1420.
¢¹Yongsudang(located in the west wall of Yeonhuidag): Built in 1732.
¢¹Jinnamru(originally called Choru): Built in 1634.
¢¹Nammun(a two-storied building): Built in 1417.
¢¹Gongmuru(a gate of Gaeksa): Built in 1702.
¢¹Jesungru(a gate of Unjuheon): Built in 1745.
¢¹Dokjegak(an armory, located in the west)
¢¹Jangdae(for a commander to command, located in the south 2-ri)
¢¹Joryanggo, Jojeokchang(a grain storehouse)
¢¹Gwancheonggo(a governmental goods storehouse)
(goods and grain storehouse for relief and given only during a disaster)
¢¹Magazine, armory, military house
¢¹Namdangchang, Dongchang(a military supplies storehouse)

There were all kinds of government offices and buildings inside the Byeongyeong Fortress. The most important Gaeksa in symbol was divided into Dongheon and Seoheon. Seoheon was called Cheongsimgak or Mangmiru.
To enter Gaeksa, one passed through Hongsalmun(gate) and Naeoesalmun(gate). One of them was Gongmuru. There was Unjuheon in the back of Gaeksa, which is guessed as military commander's office.

Oesammun of Unjuheon was called Jeseungru. Jeokmakheon, where Uhu(an aid of military commander) attended his duties, was built with Unjuheon.

There was Yeonhuidang, a place for soldiers to relax, west of Unjuheon. Many-storied Ungsudang was built on its west top of the fortress and Dokjegak was built south of the fortress. An armory was built east of the fortress for common officials to keep arms and Gangyeomdang was built inside the armory.

Apart from records of literature, although many buildings including existing Gwandeokjeong may be arranged, it is difficult to confirm at present.


Byeongma Jeoldosa, who was the supreme commander of Jeolla Byeongyeong,and Byeongma Uhu, who was an aide of Jeoldosa, held office for two years. Although the appointment of Jeolla Jeoldosa is definitely unknown, it can be partially understood through <Joseon Wangjo Sillok>.

While Ma Cheon-mok playing a leading part in building Byeongyeong Fortress was in King Taejong's favor, many military commanders were impeached for personal corruption. Jeolla Byeongyeong had 9 military officials, excluding Jeoldosa and Uhu, 1 painter, called Hwasa, and 1 Simyak, who checked out medicinal stuff offered to a king.

According to <Sejong Sillok Jiriji>, there were about 700 soldiers in Byeongyeong, but the number was sharply reduced before and after Imjinwaeran(Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592). According to <Byeongyeong Ilji>, there were 10,000 Nappogun, who gave cloth instead of serving in the army, and 500 soldiers. It demonstrated that Nappogun had a majority of common people rather than real trained soldiers, whose purpose is to secure their finance stability.

The finance of Byeongyeong was divided into two parts: one part was allotted to the central government and the other part was for operating expenses of its office. Regular taxes paid to five governmental offices including Bibyeonsa, were presented to the king during national events, and its own expenses were alloted by dry-field grain or goods offered from each town in Jeolla-do.

Among others, Naju, Yeongam, and Gangjin bore the great expenses. In particular, Gangjin, the base of Byeongyeong, fell under the direct jurisdiction of Byeongyeong. Gangjin residents, accounting for 20% of the total population of Gangjin-hyeon, bore all kinds of taxation and were also mobilized for public labor such as repairs of Byeongyeong. Military supplies of Byeongyeong were provided through the operation of warehouse.

Byeolbimi of Suin Sanseong was also distributed to each town and it interest was applied to finance.

Untitled Document
Untitled Document