start of Gangjin history, Jeolla Byeongyeong
The Gangjin area where Jeolla Byeongyeong was established
is now being developed. Many
of the relics and remains since the prehistoric age are
Although remains of the Old Stone Age and the New Stone
Age have not been found yet, people of the Bronze Age,
who remained dolmens, occupied the basis of their livelihood
one place after the other identified in Gangjin including
Byeongyeong-myeon where Byeongyeong
(military camp) was set up.
Groups opening the Iron Age formed small countries in
the Mahan area and was absorbed into Baekje. In
this course, the Byeongyeong area was changed into Domu-gun
in the Baekje Period and reorganized to Dogang-gun in
the Goryeo Dynasty.
Dogang-gun was controlled by Yeongam-gun and became independent
as Dongang-hyeon in the Joseon Dynasty. Gangjin of today
became an administrative district in the 17th year of
Kign Taejong(1417) by combining Dogang and Tamjin.
The formation of Gangjin-hyeon was
very closely related to Jeolla Byeongyeong. To effectively
defend Japanese pirate raiders, Jeolla Byeongyeong, established
in Gwangsan-hyeon, was moved to Dogang, resulting in the
birth of Gangjin.
This was the start of the history of Jeolla Byeongyeong
and Gangjin which functioned as the headquarters of the
province of Jeolla-do, holding and controlling the military
power of 50 counties.
background of establishing Jeolla Byeongyeong
Byeongyeong(military camp) which was the defense position
of Jeolla-do and general headquarters of the army, was
established in Gonae Sanseong, Gwangsan-hyeon(Gwangju
of today) at first and moved to Gangjin in the 17th year
of King Taejong(1417). It functioned as general headquarters
of Jeolla-do for 500 years until it was removed in the
reformation of military system of the 32nd year of King
Gojong(1895). Marked for holding great hardships Gangjin
is a place with a historic background.
The reason is yet to be established when King Taejong
ordered to look for the site of new Jeolla Byeongyeong
in Jan. 1417 and selected Dogang-hyeon as a new site.
Dogang was the name of Gangjin in the Goryeo Dynasty.
-A coastal area as an effective defense against Japanese
The reason to move Byeongyeong to Dongang(Gangjin)
next to the sea was related to the defense against Japanese
-A fortress with a beacon
To effectively defend the coastal area against Japanese
pirate raiders who would raid on the southwest coast
from late in the Goryeo Dynasty, Joseon needed to concentrate
its military strength on the coastal area.
Despite active measures to conciliate, the damage of
Japanese pirate raiders continued. King Taejong reinforced
military facilities in both inland and the coast and
improved the military system to actively prepare for
the raids of Japanese pirates.
In this process, Jeolla Byeongyeong was moved to Gangjin
next to the coast.
Gangjin also had a mountain fortress wall in Mt. Suin
as the back fortress. Suin Sanseong was built in the
Goryeo Dynasty and used as a shelter late in the Goryeo
Dynasty when Japanese pirates severely raided the area.
Since there was a beacon on the top of Mt. Suin which
could report to Byeongyeong if the enemy was found in
the adjacent fields became very productive, Gagnjin
was a very good place of Byeongyeong.
-The location of a county(gun)-level
fortress in history
It is assumed that this area was the seat of Dogang-hyeon.
Although Dogang-hyeon was demoted to hyeon according
to the reorganization of an administrative district
in the Goryeo Dynasty, it was Domu-gun in the Baekje
Period and Yangmu-gun in the Unified Silla Period. Since
there was strategic defense facilities fortress such
as Suin Sanseong since early times, an old fortress
was rebuilt and maintained to be used as a new one.
and maintenance of Jeolla Byeongyeong
The establishment of Jeolla Byeongyeong
in Gangjin was closely related to the improvement of
local military system in the Joseon Dynasty. The Joseon
Dynasty improved the national system to bury the military
remains of Goryeo. It established the Yeongjin system
that two or four military camps were built in every
province and Cheomjeoljesa controlled adjacent troops.
The Jeolla area established Byeongyeong in Gwangsan-hyeon(near
Songjeong, Gwangju) under the Yeongjin system and had
four military camps. To defend Japanese pirate raiders,
naval military camps were moved to the coast and finally
Jeolla Byeongyeong was also moved to Gangjin to reinforce
the defense system in cooperation with the army and
the naval force.
Jeolla Byeongyeong in Gangjin was built by the military
commander Ma Cheon-mok.
In Eulmyowaebyeon(Japanese invasion of Korea in 1555),
Byeongyeong met with crisis. Although a damaged fortress
was restored by the military commander Nam Chi-geun,
it was destroyed by unexpected fire.
Then, it was totally remodeled and 1,800 people(Buddhist
monks accounted for 2/3) were sent out to construct
a building with 96 rooms according to ¡ºJeolla Byeongyeong
On the other hand, there was constant controversy concerning
the irrationality of the movement of Byeongyeong to
Gangjin mainly on the aspect of geographic location.
But, it was not accepted due to the strong need to defend
the area against Japanese pirate raiders.
Meanwhile, the local army, following the Yeongjin system,
became more systematic as the Jingwan system that reinforced
Since defense focused on the coast under the Jingwan
system, there was some discussion that Byeongyeong should
be moved to Gwangju, Naju, or Damyang to reinforce the
inland area. Some worried that the inland may put into
danger because the army as well as the naval forces
were mostly concentrated guarding along the sea or the
In reality, Byeongyeong was once moved to Jangheung
in the process of improving the military system in the
32nd year of King Seonjo(1599) immediately after Imjinwaeran(Japanese
invasion of Korea in 1592).
However, there was a fierce conflict of interests among
the locals and it was returned to Gangjin 6 years later.
Jangheung residents suffered from frequent reception
and Gangjin residents wanted to had Byeongyeong again.
Occasionally, after that time, there was a discussion
on the movement of Byeongyeong by some administrators
who was interested in local defense such as Oh Dal-un,
born in Haenam, and Dasan Jeong Yang-yong. Oh Dal-un
argued that Byeongyeong should be moved toDamyang, Gwangju,
or Jangseong. However, his proposal was not accepted.
Since Imjinwaeran(Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592)
and Jeongyujaeran(Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1597),
Joseon had kept the peace for long without the invasion
of foreign power. Rather, it tried coping with the urgent
political and social changes from within, local military
camps did not show active changes more than the maintenance
of the old status quo. Consequently, Jeolla Byeongyeong
did not leave Gangjin until it was removed during the
open port period.
| Feb. 1417
(The 17th year of King Taejong)
| Moved to Byeongyeong of today from Gwangsan-hyun.
(The 17th year of King Taejong)
A fortress wall and early buildings were built.
(The 3rd year of King Sejo)
There was discussion on the removal of Byeongyeong
Fortress in connection with the completion of the
(The 10th year of King Myeongjong)
| A military commander and the Jangheung Governor
were killed and the Yeongam Governor was taken prisoner
during Dallyangjin Sabyeon(Eulmyo Waebyeon), Byeongyeong.
Fortress was ruined.
(The 10th year of King Myeongjong)
| Byeongyeong Fortress was partially rebuilt by Military
Commander, Nam Chi-geun.
(The 14th year of King Seonjo)
A building was rebuilt(69 rooms)
Imjinwaeran(Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592),
Jeongyujaeran(Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1597)
(The 32nd year of King Seonjo)
Moved to Jangheung Eupseong.
(The 37th year of King Seonjo)
| Moved to Byeongyeong of today again.
(The 24th year of King Injo)
| Jinnamru was built.
(The 4th year of King Hyojong)
| Jinnamru was rebuilt(Hongyemun was built).
Unjuhyeon andJeokmakheon were built.
(The 8th year of King Hyojong)
| Hamel and his mates were sent to Jeolla Byeongyeong.
| Feb. 1663
(The 15th year of King Hyojong)
| Hamel and his mates left Byeongyeong and was separated
into Jeolla Jwasuyeong(Yeosu), Suncheon, and Namwon.
(The 14th year of Sukjong)
Yeonhuidang was rebuilt.
(The 28th year of King Sukjong)
| Gongmuru(a gate of Gaeksa) was built.
(The 58th year of King Sukjong)
| Eungsudang was built.
1745(The 21st year of King Yeongjo)
|| Jeseungru(gate of Unjuhyeon) was built.
1768(The 44th year of King Yeongjo)
|| Cheongsimgak(inn) was renamed Mangmiru. Jinnamru
(The 50th year of King Yeongjo)
| Unjuheon was rebuilt.
(The 3rd year of King Jeongjo)
| Gongmuru was rebuit.
(The 15th year of King Jeongjo)
| Gongmuru was destroyed by a typhoon.
(The 2nd year of King Sunjo)
| Gongmuru was restored.
(The 2nd year ofKing Cheoljong)
| Yeonhuidang was destroyed by unexpected fire and
| Dec. 10, 1894
(The 32nd of King Gojong)
| During the Donghak Peasantry Movement, it fell.
Official residences, attached buildings, and neighboring
private houses were burnt.
(The 33rd year of King Gojong